Argomentazione metaforica in un corpus di assemblee politiche/Metaphorical argumentation in a political assemblies corpus

Gabriele Tosato

Abstract


How do metaphors work when their chief function is an argumentative and persuasive one? Building on a previous corpus study of the memoranda of an Italian council of foreigners, this paper aims to demonstrate how metaphors function when different ideological perspectives face each other in a single communicative space over a series of gatherings, studying them from various points of view (linguistic, conceptual, textual, pragmatic and enunciative), adopting a corpus approach with the support of blending theory. The role of metaphors in such cases is twofold. Political perspectives confront one another precisely through metaphors: as a result, metaphors interact not only at a textual level, as predictable, but also systematically, through multiple meetings over the years. Secondly, even though metaphors betray different perspectives, they also unexpectedly reveal a common element: metaphors semantically incorporate the speakers’ social and communicative identity. Thus, they play a crucial communicative and argumentative role, as this identity forms a “fence of consensus”, a common cluster of values between members of a group (irrespective of their different political perspectives), not necessarily shared by those outside the group. In sum, metaphors cover important rhetorical and conceptual functions, and their interaction results in complex argumentative strategies. In addition, these systematical phenomena confirm the importance of a corpus approach in metaphor research

Keywords


metaphor, immigration, corpus, identity, persuasion

References


ARIEL, Mira (2002), «The demise of a unique concept of literal meaning», in Journal of Pragmatics, n. 34, pp. 361-402.

ARISTOTELE (2006), Retorica e Poetica, a cura di M. Zanatta, UTET, Torino.

ASGI/FIERI (2005), «La partecipazione politica degli stranieri a livello locale. Working Paper», disponibile su http://www.piemonteimmigrazione.it/PDF/Rapporto

_ASGI-FIERI_2005.pdf

BENVENISTE, Émile (1974), «L’appareil formel de l’énonciation», in Problèmes de linguistique générale 2, Paris, Gallimard, pp. 79-88.

BIORCI, Grazia (2012), «L’uso della metafora nella “letteratura migrante”. Il case study dei romanzi di Amara Lakhous», in RiMe, n. 9, pp. 113-131.

BETTONI, Camilla (20064), Usare un’altra lingua. Guida alla pragmatica interculturale, Laterza, Roma-Bari

BLACK, Max (1983), Modelli, Archetipi, Metafore, Pratiche Editrice, Parma.

CACCIARI , Cristina (2011), Psicologia del linguaggio, Il Mulino, Parma.

CAMERON, Lynne; DEIGNAN, Alice (2006), The Emergence of Metaphor in Discourse, in «Applied Linguistics», n. 27(4), pp. 671-690.

CHECCOLI, Paola (2010), «Harragas e nuovi cittadini. Il migrante nella letteratura marocchina di espressione francese tradotta in Italia», in Italies, n. 14, pp. 451-467, disponibile su http://italies.revues.org/3366.

CIMATTI, Felice (1999), Fondamenti naturali della comunicazione, in GENSINI S. (a cura di), Manuale della comunicazione, Carocci, Roma, pp. 53-88.

COULSON, Seana; OAKLEY, Todd (2006) Purple Persuasion: Deliberative Rhetoric and Conceptual Blending, in LECHJENBROERS, June (a cura di), Cognitive Linguistics Investigations, John Benjamins, Amsterdam-Philadelphia, [1998], pp. 47-65.

DEIGNAN, Alice (2005), Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics, Benjamins, Amsterdam.

DEIGNAN, Alice; SEMINO, Elena (2010), Corpus techniques for metaphor analysis, in CAMERON L. & MASLEN R. (a cura di), Metaphor Analysis: Research Practice in Applied Linguistics, Social Sciences and the Humanities, Equinox, London, pp. 161-179.

ECO, Umberto (1984), Semiotica e Filosofia del linguaggio, Einaudi, Torino.

ELLERO, Paola (2010), «Letteratura migrante in Italia», in Lingua nostra e oltre: Letteratura migrante, nn. 3-5, pp. 4-12.

FAUCONNIER, Gilles; TURNER, Mark (2001), Amalgami. Introduzione ai Network di integrazione concettuale, QuattroVenti, Urbino.

GENSINI, Stefano (2010), «Sul ruolo del ricevente nelle teorie della comunicazione», in Bollettino di Italianistica, anno VII, n. 1, pp. 92-109.

GIBBS, Raymond jr. (1989), «Understanding and Literal Meaning», in Cognitive Science, n. 13, pp. 243-251.

GIBBS, Raymond jr. (2002), «A new look at literal meaning in understanding what is said and implicated», in Journal of Pragmatics, n. 34, pp. 457-486.

GIORA, Rachel (2002), «Literal vs. figurative language: Different or equal?», in Journal of Pragmatics, n. 34, pp. 487-506.

GLUCKSBERG, Sam (2001), Understanding Figurative Language, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

GRADY, Joseph E.; OAKLEY, Todd; COULSON, Seana (1999), Blending and Metaphor, in STEEN, Gerard e GIBBS, Raymond jr. (a cura di), Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics, John Benjamins, Philadelphia.

GUASTINI, Daniele (2003), Prima dell’estetica. Poetica e filosofia nell’antichità, Laterza, Roma-Bari.

ISRAEL, Michael (2005), Common Sense and ‘Literal Meaning’, in COULSON, Seana, LEWANDOWSKA-TOMASZCZYK, Barbara, (a cura di), The Literal and Nonliteral in Language and Thought, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, pp. 147-177.

KUTAS, Marta; FEDERMEIER, Kara D. (2011), «Thirty years and counting: Finding meaning in the N400 component of the event related brain potential (ERP)», in Annual Review of Psychology, n. 62, pp. 621-647.

LAKOFF, George (1993), The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor, in ORTONY, Andrew (a cura di), Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 202-251.

LAKOFF, George ; JOHNSON, Mark (1998), Metafora e vita quotidiana, Bompiani, Milano.

LEEZENBERG, Michiel (2013), «From Cognitive Linguistics to Social Science: Thirty Years after Metaphors We Live By», in Journal of Cognitive Semiotics, vol. 5, nn. 1-2, pp. 140-152.

LITTLEMORE, Jeannette; LOW, Graham (2006), «Metaphoric competence and communicative language ability», in Applied Linguistics, n. 27 (2), pp. 268-294.

MOUTON, Nico (2013), «Do Metaphors Evolve? The Case of the Social Organism», in Journal of Cognitive Semiotics, vol. 5, n. 1-2, pp. 312-348.

ONO, Aya (2007), La notion d’énonciation chez Émile Benveniste, Lambert-Lucas, Limoges.

PROVINCIA DI BOLOGNA (2008-2013), Verbali delle sedute del Consiglio degli stranieri e apolidi della Provincia di Bologna, disponibili su http://www.cittamet

ropolitana.bo.it/portale/Engine/RAServePG.php/P/1057410010404/T/Competenze-e-attivita (consultato il 19 novembre 2016).

RASTIER, François (1994), «Tropes et sémantique linguistique», in Langue française, n. 101, pp. 80-101.

RONCHETTI, Laura (2012) (a cura di), I diritti di cittadinanza dei migranti, Giuffrè, Milano.

STEEN, Gerard (2013), «Deliberate Metaphor Affords Conscious Metaphorical Cognition», in Journal of Cognitive Semiotics, vol. 5, nn. 1-2, pp. 179-197.

WEINRICH, Harald (1976), Metafora e menzogna, Il Mulino, Bologna.


Full Text: DOWNLOAD PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio - - - ISSN 2036-6728

 

Licenza Creative Commons
The works published in this journals are released under Creative Commons Licence - Attribution Non Commercial.